The Dunning-Kruger effect is a type of cognitive bias in which people with low ability in a particular domain overestimate their ability. It is named after psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, who first described the phenomenon in a 1999 paper.
The Dunning-Kruger effect occurs because people with low ability in a particular domain lack the knowledge and skills necessary to accurately assess their own ability. They may not be aware of their own limitations and may overestimate their abilities as a result. This can lead them to make poor decisions and take unnecessary risks, as they believe they are more capable than they actually are.
People who are highly skilled in a particular domain, on the other hand, tend to underestimate their own abilities. This is because they are aware of the complexity and difficulty of the tasks they are performing, and are more aware of their own limitations.
The Dunning-Kruger effect can have significant consequences in many areas of life, including education, work, and relationships. It is important for individuals to be aware of this bias and to try to accurately assess their own abilities and limitations.